In a world where fossil fuels run out it is necessary to search for alternatives. N+P is one of the pioneers who set up installations for processing industrial waste streams into alternatives for e.g. lignite, bituminous coal and other fossil fuels. Mostly commercial and industrial, sorted, non-recyclable paper-plastic fractions are being used as raw material to produce alternative fuels. N+P has grown into one of Europe’s market leaders in producing and supplying alternative fuels. Cement kilns, energy plants and lime kilns combust alternative fuels instead of primary fuels in their kilns and boilers.

On behalf of N+P Neville Roberts gave a presentation about the Subcoal® technology at the Clean Coal Technologies Conference in Kraków. Thank you if you attended the presentation. Click here to view the presentation. This article is a follow-up on the presentation.

Subcoal® is a technology to upgrade RDF (refuse derived fuels) and SRF (solid recovered fuels) to pellets. Pellets are cylindrical sticks with the same chemical composition as bituminous coal. The pellets are comparable to coal in terms of heating value and it can be treated the same way. Power plants, lime and cement kilns can grind the pellets with their coal mills. Grinding and combusting the pellets and coal together is also possible.


The specifications are adapted to the customer’s preference resulting in efficient combustion and in many cases reduced emissions to atmosphere. These are Subcoal®’s typical specifications.

Netto calorific value                        > 20.000 KJ/kgSubcoal poeder klein
                                                       > 9.000 Btu/pound
Ash content                                    < 12 W,-%
Moisture                                         < 8 W.-% DW
Chlorine                                         < 0,8 W.-% DW
Sum heavy metals                         < 800 mg/kg
TOC                                               > 50 W.-% DW
Biomass                                         > 50 W.-% DW
Volatile matter                                > 60%
Typical physical size (not ground)  Ø 8 mm (lt< 40 mm)
Typical physical size (ground)       < 5 mm
Density                                          400-450 kg/m³
The Subcoal® concept gives the waste recycling sector and the major energy consuming industries a clear route to recover energy with a material that would otherwise have been disposed by incineration or landfill. Instead the waste streams are refined and converted into a high quality fuel.

Read more about the Subcoal® Technology.

Research and consultancy organisation CE Delft the environmental effects of Subcoal in coal-fired power plants. The results will get published soon. Stay tuned.


For more information about RDF, SRF, Subcoal® or about our other products, contact our office.

Tel:   +31 (0)485 348550

Fax: +31 (0)485 342862

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Postal address:

PO Box 24
5854 ZG Nieuw-Bergen (Lb)

The Netherlands